Rights Instead of Flowers
This data highlights the situation of and attitudes toward women in Georgia, based on official statistics and public opinion research:
Gender based violence starts in Georgia even before a girl is born:
• While 76% of the population of Georgia say abortions are never justified, people tend to act differently if a girl is expected. As a result of sex selective abortions in 1990-2010, 25,000 girls are estimated to be missing in Georgia.
• If a family is to have only one child, every fourth person prefers a boy while only one in ten prefers a girl.
If and when she is born, she grows up in a society where:
• 22% consider a university degree to be more important for a boy than for a girl;
• 57% believe that it is not acceptable for a woman of any age to drink hard alcohol such as vodka or brandy;
• 81% think that it is not acceptable for a woman of any age to smoke tobacco;
• 56% think that it is not acceptable for a woman of any age to live apart from her parents before marriage;
• 69% believe that it is never justified for a woman to have sexual relationships before marriage;
• 57% believe that it is never justified for a woman to give birth to a child without being married.
Then she gets married and hears that:
• A man should normally be the only breadwinner in the family;
• He should also be the main decision maker in the family;
• Women cannot be as successful in their career as men because of the household responsibilities they have;
• Taking care of the home and family satisfies a woman as much as a paid job.
She will then become a mother in a country where:
• The maternal mortality rate is the worst in Eastern European and neighboring countries;
• 65% of people believe that “it is better for a preschool aged child if the mother does not work”;
• One in three do not believe that “employed mothers can be as good caregivers to their children as mothers who do not work”;
• 74% believe that a woman is more valued for her family than for success in her career.
If she perseveres and gets a job, she will:
• Earn 39% less than men, on average.
• Have difficulties in career progression since the vast majority of people think that women are not as good at decision making as men, and nearly one in five men would feel uncomfortable with a woman as their immediate boss.
If she ever has problems with her husband:
• Every other compatriot would tell her that in order to preserve the family, a woman should endure a lot from her spouse;
• Initiating divorce will only be justified to others if she is physically abused by her husband. If her husband is being unfaithful, psychologically abusive, or if she is no longer in love with him, these simply are not good enough reasons for a women to initiate divorce;
• If her husband is psychologically abusive, most people will simply ignore her problems, since it is widely believed that non-physical violence is a matter that should only be dealt with in the family. And 39% of the population thinks the same about physical violence.
And still, every fifth person in the country says there is gender equality in Georgia.
The list of issues presented above is by no means exhaustive, but rather provides an overview of data which contributes to an understanding of perceived gender roles in Georgia.
Natia Mestvirishvili is a Nonresident Senior Fellow at CRRC-Georgia and a Researcher at the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD).
[Note: Social Science in the Caucasus is publishing the work of six young researchers who entered CRRC-Georgia’s Junior Fellowship Program (JFP) in February 2015. This is the third blog post in the series. Click here to see the first and second blog posts in the series.]
Livestock care and livestock-related decision making in rural Georgia: Are there any gender differences?CRRC-Georgia’s survey conducted in August 2017 for the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) asked about livestock owned by rural households in Georgia, including cows, bulls, buffalo, pigs, sheep, and goats. Cows and bulls were reported to be owned most commonly. Some of the questions the project addressed the division of tasks between men and women in taking care of livestock, while other questions tried to find out whether there were gender differences in making major decisions related to livestock and livestock products.
In Georgia, having a boy has traditionally been desirable as sons are often considered the main successors in the family line, and they stay at home to take care of their parents as they age in contrast to women who traditionally move in with their husband’s family.
Gendered norms prevail in Georgian society, which often translates into deprecation of women for smoking, drinking alcohol, having pre-marital sex, and even living with a boyfriend. However, attitudes appear to be shifting.
CRRC’s Caucasus Barometer survey asked people what they thought about several such activities. The data showed that the public are least accepting of women smoking, with 80% reporting it is never acceptable at any age. Sexual relations (63%) and cohabitating with a man before marriage were also commonly thought to be never acceptable for women (60%).